The Tribe

The Tribe…

In today’s promotion of self importance, the tribe’s influence has been conscripted into an academic framework that is being promoted as “Evolutionary Biology” which is now defined as a sub-field of biology.

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The Crying Angel...This is where claims are being made that certain traits or alleles of genes segregating within a population “might” be subject to process of selection.

Now in imposing this hypothesis, what is being suggested is that a selection of individuals with advantages or “adaptive” traits tend to be more successful than their peers.

Thus, this hypothesis is attempting to suppose meaning that they reproductively contribute more offspring to the succeeding generation than others do, inferring that the “adaptive” traits are biologically inspired on a cellular level.

In this argument, it is being asserted that these traits have a genetic basis and in the “adaptive” selection they can increase the prevalence of those traits, because offspring will inherit those traits from their parents.

Additionally, it is claimed that when this selection is intense and persistent, adaptive traits become universal to the population or species, which may then be said to have evolved.

Proponents theorize that these “memes” are a viral phenomenon that may evolve by natural selection in a manner analogous to that of biological evolution.

Now…realize that “may evolve” isn’t an absolute and that “theorize” is really just a Overactive Critical Imagination (OCI)!

Active artificial imagination isn’t necessarily a bad thing on it’s own but, when it is introduced as an academically supported finding that is absent the merits of fact…well then, it should be recognized for what it is, artificial!

In popularizing a gene-centered view of evolution, the Ancient Greek’s Ptolemaic system, which is also refereed to as genocentric, becomes the outdated or “Old School” version.

Richard Dawkins used the term “selfish gene” as a way of popularizing his gene-centered view of evolution.

Dawkins’ words; natural selection favors genes that build survival machines (later called vehicles to include both individuals and some “whole classes of organisms”, and more flamboyantly, “gigantic lumbering robots”.

In other words, according to genocentrism, organisms evolve as elaborate contraptions constructed and controlled by genes, and evolution selects among these competing phenotypes or “interactors”, not by altering the activity or form of the underlying genes (“replicators”), but simply by proliferating those mutated instructions that engender construction of the most successful survival machines.

Genomics

This is a discipline in genetics that applies recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyze the function and structure of genomes (the complete set of DNA within a single cell of an organism).

Research of single genes does not fall into the definition of genomics unless the aim of this genetic, pathway, and functional information analysis is to elucidate its effect on, place in, and response to the entire genome’s networks.

Interdisciplinarity

The term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies (the art of teaching) to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study.

Interdisciplinarity involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies—along with their “specific perspectives” in the pursuit of a common task.

Mathematical and theoretical biology

These “Specific Perspectives” in the field of theoretical biology may choose to infer mathematical biology or biomathematics in order to stress the mathematical side, or as theoretical biology, not necessarily the actual cellular biology.

For example, in cell biology, protein interactions are often represented as “cartoon” models, which, although easy to visualize, do not accurately describe the systems being studied.

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The Crying Angel...Thus the result of this phenotypic evolution, it is claimed, is to identify gene populations as an evolutionarily human gene strategy that replicates or imitates mutated instructions., not an evolutionarily form of cellular structured biological mutation.

To What End…?

Dawkins’ words; “We have the power to turn against our creators.”
— Richard Dawkins: The Selfish Gene, p. 201

Dawkins compares a number of strategies with ESS, particularly Tit for Tat in the reciprocal altruism’s behavior whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism’s fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.

The Game Theory…

The Game Theory is the study of strategic decision making. Specifically, it is “the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.

Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science, and biology.

The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person’s gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant or participants.

Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, including both humans and non-humans (e.g. computers).

Conscription to an Algorithmic Game Theory

Algorithmic Game Theory from two perspectives:

Analysis: look at the current implemented algorithms and analyze them using Game Theory tools: calculate and prove properties on their Nash equilibria, price of anarchy, best-response dynamics …

Design: design games that have both good game-theoretical and algorithmic properties. This area is called algorithmic mechanism design

The field was started when Nisan and Ronen in STOC’99 drew the attention of the Theoretical Computer Science community to designing algorithms for selfish (strategic) users.

As they claim in the abstract:

We consider algorithmic problems in a distributed setting where the participants cannot be assumed to follow the algorithm but rather their own self-interest.

As such participants, termed agents, are capable of manipulating the algorithm, the algorithm designer should ensure in advance that the agents’ interests are best served by behaving correctly.

Following notions from the field of mechanism design, we suggest a framework for studying such algorithms. In this model the algorithmic solution is adorned with payments to the participants and is termed a mechanism. The payments should be carefully chosen as to motivate all participants to act as the algorithm designer wishes. We apply the standard tools of mechanism design to algorithmic problems and in particular to the shortest path problem.

The Internet as a catalyst…

The Internet created a new economy—both as a foundation for exchange and commerce, and in its own right.

The computational nature of the Internet allowed for the use of computational tools in this new emerging economy.

On the other hand, the Internet itself is the outcome of actions of many. This was new to the classic, ‘top-down’ approach to computation that held till then.

Thus, the game theory became a way to view the Internet and interactions within it, both human and mechanical, offering a further opportunity to create both the cause and effects upon our world society.

The Analysis of Algorithms…

Algorithm analysis is an important part of a broader computational complexity theory, which provides theoretical estimates for the resources needed by any algorithm which solves a given computational problem.

These estimates provide an insight into reasonable directions of search for efficient algorithms.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software and it is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior.

The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.

It is important to point out here that general intelligence is still among the field’s long-term goals.

Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI.

There are a large number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others.

The AI field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology.

The field was founded on the claim that a central property of human intelligence (the sapience of Homo sapiens) can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it!

Artificial Intelligence…

In looking at human beings (Homo sapiens) as a tribe, it can be seen that the advancements in neuroscience has prescribed a form of artificial psychology in order to have the ends justify the means (cause and effect).

This algorithmic mechanism is designed to formulate mathematical optimization in logic form for the employment of methods that can most assuredly provide the greatest probability for a given outcome.

Therefore…resistance to such methods by individual tribe members is futile, as by the definition, the new normal asserts that the artificial path of logic provides the correct society way-point.

Therefore any deviation from the greatest probability for a given outcome, would fall under the evolving psychopathology definitions of understanding for their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.

In imagining how The State of the Void may appear, one would need to become fully cognizant of the influences that algorithmic probability plays in assisting our day to day choices?

Any victim of circumstance, who unwittingly could stumble upon such a consensus for the trajectory of mankind, may need to become fully appreciative of the invisible thin line that exist between being a conduit or an obstacle…

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Writing with the Veiled…